10 Types of Access Control Systems


Controlling resource access is a central concept of security that minimizes an organization’s exposure to security risks.

There are two kinds of access control: logical and physical. Physical access control regulates access to buildings, campuses, physical computer assets, and rooms. Logical control determines connections to system data and files, computer networks, and other logical computer resources.

So as to protect an organization, establishments implement electronic access control procedures that use access card readers, user credentials, audit reports that follow people’s entry into particular organization premises, and proprietary areas like the company’s data centers. Most of the access control systems use access control panels to limit access to buildings and rooms as well as lockdown capabilities and alarms to restrict unauthorized operations or access.

Access control systems rely on authorization, authentication, and identification of entities and staff members by assessing the required login credentials such as passwords, PINs (personal identification numbers), security tokens, biometric scans or other credentials used for identification.

Access control systems operate by identifying a staff member or entity, verifying that the staff member’s or application’s identity, and authorizing the set of actions and access levels that are associated with the logged in credentials. Directory protocols and services, such as the (LDAP) Local Directory Access Protocol, offer access control mechanisms by authorizing and authenticating entities and staff members. Additionally, the access control systems enable the users to use organizational resources like web servers and distributed applications.

Types of Access Control

Establishments often implement different access control systems depending on their compliance needs.

Below are some of the common types of access control models.

Door Locks and Biometric Sensors

Installing biometric sensors such as fingerprint recognition and iris scanning can keep away intruders. Sometimes, all that is needed to keep the bad guys away is to provide enough time for the authorities to act. The door, however, should not be the only closed object. Consider locking access to servers, desktops, and laptops. In some instances, employees enter the building and run away unrecognized with a laptop under his arm. Such situations happen quite often. One way of solving this problem might lie in the use of closed doors.

Trained Front Desk Personnel

Create a front desk that is staffed by people who have extensive and appropriate training the field of security and protection. The trained security personnel have to be equipped with proper tools such as motion detectors, alarms, and high-powered moving light technology. These tools will respond to any attempt to penetrate the building by ringing the alarm. Consider for example a thief trying to enter the building, the high-powered moving light system will light the intruder’s eyes and create a silhouette image of the person. The front desk personnel can thereafter sound the alarm and arrest the situation.

Trained Staff

Research has proven that most attacks occur internally. This means that most attacks are perpetrated by angry staff members. For this reason, we need to make proper efforts to train staff members on how to react to emergencies. This kind of training should not be a one-time event; it should be done at regular intervals.

Video Analytics Interface

Cameras are important in protecting your organization, but watching long hours of footage can be a tall order. Video analytics algorithms compare footages to their data models and gather intelligence. Given their intelligence, video analytics algorithms can predict anomalous behavior.

Proximity Cards and Swipe Readers

Use swipe readers to secure your organization’s entryway. This is an easy way of barring intruders. Swipe cards allow authorized staff members to access particular areas of the premises.

Basic Intercom

Intercom systems allow staff members to communicate instantly within the building. With an intercom, authorized employees can gain access to the premises. This is because intercoms are good for registering voice.

Biometric Systems

Biometric access control systems are effective and convenient because staff members do not have to carry an ID card.

Contactless Smart Card Access Control Systems

Smart Card Access Control models offer a cost-effective and efficient way of protecting your premises. The smart card is used to provide attendance records, accessing particular areas, logging into computers and opening doors.

Badges and ID Cards

Staff members should be authorized and allowed entry using badges and identity cards Visitors ought to register at the reception and receive a card, which remains under the care of the visitor while on the company buildings. These cards and badges must be scanned often to allow access to different areas. Additional access control mechanisms should be installed in labs, warehouses, and areas where data is kept.